Distillation: it is a separation process which is used to separate desired component from a liquid mixture by making use of differences in volatilities of different components of the mixture.
Working principle of distillation: heating a mixture at a specific temperature, i.e. boiling point of liquid, is vaporization takes place. The hot vapor is collected and condensate to separate the components of substances. Highly volatile substances are separated from less volatile compounds in distillation.
Principle of distillation:
- Condensation of vapor without allowing any liquid to return to the still i.e. without refluxing.
- Return of the part of condensate to the still under such condition that this returning liquid is brought into intimate contact with vapors on their way to their condenser. This method is also called distillation with reflux or rectification or fractional distillation.