Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy ketones of compounds thereof or polymers that can liberate those compounds upon hydrolysis. With some exceptions, carbohydrates have general formula CnH2nOn where n refers to any positive integer. Carbohydrates can be represented by (CH2O)n where n ≥ 3. Carbohydrates are major source of energy for man and many animals. In man’s diet, the chief carbohydrate is starch. For child, lactose is major source of carbohydrate.

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Introduction to Terminologies of Food and Nutrition


Food means any substances eaten or drunk which meets the need for energy, body regulation and protection.  Food is that which nourish the body. Food may be processed, semi-processed or unprocessed but must be safe. According to Food Act of Nepal 2023; food means any unprocessed, semi processed or processed food or drinking substances which the human being generally consume and drinks include any spices, food additives, color or flavor to be used in any food or drinking substances.

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Balanced Diet

Basic five food groups:

Foods are divided into five different groups on the basis of similarity of nutrient they provide. For example, milk, yogurt, cheese group of food provide calcium and protein while fruit group is good source of vitamins especially vitamin C. according to United States department of Agriculture (USDA), food are classified into following five food groups.

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Boiling Point Diagram (TXY Diagram)

Equilibrium diagram (X-Y) diagram is simple diagram than boiling point diagram in which plot of temperature is eliminated. The boiling point diagram represents dynamic equilibrium of mole fraction of vapor and liquid phase at certain temperature at constant pressure. Boiling point diagram at constant pressure for binary mixture having component A and B is as below.

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