Food safety management system (FSMS)

It is group of practices and procedures intended to control risk and hazard throughout the handling of food. Hazard can be

  1. Biological: microorganisms like bacteria, yeast, mold and insects and pests
  2. Physical: stone, metals and wood chips
  3. Chemical: cleaning detergents and corrosives and poisons

Foundation of food safety management system: Read more

Diet and Diseases

Person may suffer from different diseases and therefore need to adopt different diet plan to recuperate form the ailment. Different food have different functions and thus the same diet cannot benefit all diseased condition. Special care should be given in diet when suffering from body illness like fever, hypertension, diabetes etc. There are diet that should be strictly prohibited in certain diseases while some food are highly recommended for recuperating the disease or fighting the disease. Also care should be taken about recommended dietary allowances of nutrients for specific age group and gender and particular diseases. Read more

How to preserve nutrients while preparing food?

1. When peeling skin of vegetables do peel as thinly as possible. The nutrients in fruits and vegetables are concentrated just below the skin.

2. Do not cut vegetables into very small cubes as the surface area f vegetables interact with oxygen and destroy vitamins

3. Do not soak vegetables in water to prevent discoloration (browning). 40% of water soluble vitamins are lost during soaking. If you must soak, use the soaked water t knead dough and prepare soup and gravies.

Read more


Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy ketones of compounds thereof or polymers that can liberate those compounds upon hydrolysis. With some exceptions, carbohydrates have general formula CnH2nOn where n refers to any positive integer. Carbohydrates can be represented by (CH2O)n where n ≥ 3. Carbohydrates are major source of energy for man and many animals. In man’s diet, the chief carbohydrate is starch. For child, lactose is major source of carbohydrate.

Read more

Introduction to Terminologies of Food and Nutrition


Food means any substances eaten or drunk which meets the need for energy, body regulation and protection.  Food is that which nourish the body. Food may be processed, semi-processed or unprocessed but must be safe. According to Food Act of Nepal 2023; food means any unprocessed, semi processed or processed food or drinking substances which the human being generally consume and drinks include any spices, food additives, color or flavor to be used in any food or drinking substances.

Read more

Balanced Diet

Basic five food groups:

Foods are divided into five different groups on the basis of similarity of nutrient they provide. For example, milk, yogurt, cheese group of food provide calcium and protein while fruit group is good source of vitamins especially vitamin C. according to United States department of Agriculture (USDA), food are classified into following five food groups.

Read more