More than cleanliness, food hygiene is
- Protecting food from risk of contamination including harmful bacteria, poison and other foreign bodies.
- Prevent proliferation of microorganism present in food, which would otherwise cause food spoilage or related illness.
- Destruction of pathogenic microorganism.
- Discarding unfit or contaminated food
Cost of poor food hygiene:
- Food poisoning, illness and sometimes even death.
- Food contamination
- Customer complaints and brand image.
- Pest infestation
- Food waste/ loss due to spoilage
- Penalty of legal action because of violation of hygiene legislation.
Benefit of good food hygiene:
- Satisfied customers, good reputation, increased business and brand protection.
- Compliance with food safety legislation.
- Less food loss
Food spoilage: Deterioration of food due to microorganism or any other agent causing the food unfit for use. Signs of food spoilage are,
- Off odor and taste
- Slime formation of stickiness
- Mold growth (cottony appearance)
- Change in texture; soft in bacterial soft rot
- Production of cans (bulged cans)
- Color formation due to growth of pigmented bacteria or mold
Food preservation: processing of food or treatment of food to prevent spoilage of food and inhibit growth of pathogenic microorganism is known as food preservation. Principle behind food preservation are,
- High temperature: pasteurization, ultra violet treatment, sterilization, cooking and canning.
- Low temperature: refrigeration, freezing
- Dehydration: drying (removal of moisture)
- Preservatives: salt, sugar, sulphurdioxide
- Removal of oxygen: vacuum packaging for fish and meat
Most of the food spoilage is caused due to yeast, bacteria and mold. For food safety, following temperature should be considered for processing and storage of food.
|Temperature||Level of safety|
|37 °C||Body temperature, best temperature for the growth of most food spoilage and food poisoning bacteria|
|20 to 50 °C||Favors growth of bacteria (proliferation)|
|5 to 63 °C||Danger zone|
|1 to (-4)°C||Safer zone, microorganisms stays in dormant stage|
|< (-18) °C||No growth of microorganism|