Conveying is the method of transferring materials from one place to another generally by mechanical means. The use of conveying process are generally in all stages of manufacturing process including harvest and transportation of raw materials to store, preparation of food, movement of food or produce within the factory and movement of finished product to warehouse. It can also be used for presentation of products for selling. Efficient handling is the organized movement of materials in correct quantities to and from correct place accomplished with minimum time, labor, waste, expenditure and with maximum safety. Read more
Crude fat containing non glyceride components like mucilages, gums, hydrocarbons, free fatty acids, pigments, sterols along with oil are prone to rancidity. Therefore, impurities should be removed prior to storage and distribution of fats and oil. Purification steps normally involves
Vitamin refer to essential dietary factor which is required by an organism in small amounts and whose absence results in deficiency diseases. Vitamins are important for their regularity and protective functions. Unlike most other nutrients, they are required in very small amounts. But it is necessary to provide these in diet because many of them cannot be synthesized in our body. Excess intake of any vitamin however is harmful. Vitamins are generally classified on the basis of their solubility.
- Water soluble vitamin: vitamin C, B complex
- Fat soluble vitamin: vitamin A, D, E and K
Mineral is naturally occurring chemical compound which is not produced by life process. Food contains varying amount of minerals. The mineral may be present as organic or inorganic salt or may be present with the combination with organic materials such as phospho-protein, hemoglobin, vitamin B2, chlorophyll etc. Minerals like calcium and phosphorous are required in large amount in our diet as they constitute major part of bone. Other minerals like zinc, Cobalt, copper, iodine etc. are required in very small amount ranging from few mg to microgram. However, these minerals should not be neglected in our diet as even they are required in very small amount, their inadequate intake leads to several deficiency diseases. Read more
Water is the most abundant compound present in most food. Cellular material, whether plant or animal contains a significant amount of water. Green leafy vegetables contains ≥ 90% water. Water content in relation to food material is normally termed as “moisture content”. Meat, Milk and cereals contains 50 -60%, 87- 88% and 11-13% moisture respectively.
Interesterification is a chemical reaction that induces the rearrangement of fatty acid within and between triacylglycerols. Interesterification of oil changes its molecular composition to achieve following characteristics.
- Modify the melting point
- Slow down rancidity
- Make an oil more suitable for deep frying
- Make margarine with food taste and low saturated fat content.
Hydrogenation brings changes on physical and functional properties of fats and oil. it raises the melting point and reduces the iodine value (IV) of triglycerides. Completely hydrogenated fats (IV<1) are solid and brittle at room temperature. An advantage of hydrogenation is that a wide range of physical properties can be achieved. Functional properties of hydrogenated fat can be determined by solid fat index (SFI) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The parameters describe the relative amount of solid fat and liquid oil at fixed temperature. NMR gives value according to atomic structure and molecular weight of the substances. Read more