Infra-Red (IR) radiation does not have enough energy to induce electronic transitions as seen with UV. Absorption of IR is restricted to compounds with small energy differences in the possible vibrational and rotational states. For a molecule to absorb IR, the vibrations or rotations within a molecule must cause a net change in the dipole moment of the molecule. Electromagnetic radiation consists of an oscillating electrical field and an oscillating magnetic field perpendicular to each other. The alternating electrical field of the radiation interacts with fluctuations in the dipole moment of the molecule. If the frequency of IR radiation matches the vibrational frequency of the molecule, then radiation will be absorbed, causing the change in amplitude of molecular vibration. Read more
The technique of mass spectrometer is applicable in identifying unknown compounds by mass of the compound or their fragments. The stages within mass spectrometer are
1. Production of ions from sample
2. Separation of ions with different masses
3. Detection of number of ions of each mass produced
4. Collection of data to generate mass spectrum Read more
Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) determines the presence of metals in liquid samples. Metals include Fe, Cu, Al, Pb, Ca, Zn, Cd and many more. It also measures concentration of metals in the sample. Typical concentration range in the low mg/L. In their elemental form, metals will absorb ultraviolet light when they are excited by heat. Each metal has characteristic wavelength that will be absorbed. The AAS instrument looks for a particular metal by focusing a beam of ultraviolet (UV) light at a specific wavelength through a flame and eventually detected by a detector. Read more
Gas chromatography (GC) is a method of chemical analysis for separating chemicals in a complex sample. This technique uses a flow through narrow tube known as column through which different chemical constituents of a sample in a gas stream (mobile phase; carrier gas) at different rates depending on their various chemical and physical properties and their interaction with a specific column filling called stationary phase. As the sample exit the end of column, they are detected and identified electronically. The function of stationary phase in column is to separate different components, causing each one to exit the column at different times (retention time). Other parameters that can be used to alter the order of time of retention are
1. Carrier flow rate
2. Temperature Read more
An HPLC system basically highly improved form of column chromatography. Instead of solvent being allowed to drip through a column under gravity, it is forced under high pressure of up to 400 atmospheres that makes the process faster. A typical HPLC consists of following components.
4. Column oven
5. Detector Read more
Microbial protein are commonly called single cell protein (SCP) referring to the fact that most of the microorganism used as protein producers are single cells or filamentous individual. SCP is a generic name which refers to dry cells or protein concentrates from microorganism obtained by growing in large amount in variety of abundant and inexpensive culture media and used as protein supplement for human and animal. SCP should not be confused with biomass (ex; mushroom) and microbial biomass. SCP can be produced using different species of bacteria, yeast or fungi.
A fruit can be said to be physiologically mature when it has reached its last slow stage of growth and has developed the ability to ripe normally after harvest. It may be commercially mature in an earlier stage when sufficient desirable characteristic have been developed to make it edible. Commercial maturity is the time of harvest related to end used of market requirement. It may be any stage between development and senescence (quality degradation of ripen fruit). Physiological maturity is particular stage of plant. It is the maximum developed stage of fruits and vegetables.
During the development of growth period of fruit, there are many chemical and physical changes taking place in them. Read more